Control Valve Types: A Basic Guide

Home Control Valve Types: A Basic Guide
21/07/2023
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What is a Control Valve?

A control valve is an imperative component used to regulate fluid flow in many systems. By varying the size of the flow passage following signals from a controller, control valves directly modify the flow rate. They play a critical role in managing process quantities such as pressure, temperature, and liquid level. In the semantics of automatic control, control valves are also known as “final control elements”.

Control Valve Types

Control valve types vary widely, and understanding each type, its mechanism, and where it fits best is crucial for many industries. This is helpful not just when making an installation decision, but also for efficient control, operation, and maintenance of the systems they govern.

How Do Control Valves Work?

Control valves operate with the help of a valve actuator, which can be electrical, hydraulic, or pneumatic. It is designed to automatically open or close based on a control signal to modulate the valve. This valve modulation allows for precise control of fluid flow, adjusting the rate to match the specific requirements of an industrial process.

A modulating valve can be set to any position between fully open and fully closed using a valve positioner, ensuring it reaches the desired degree of opening. Pneumatic actuators are typically used as they only require a compressed air supply, providing a straightforward and efficient function.
The valves also follow a communication protocol, often a “Smart” communication signal added to the usual 4-20 mA control current, giving feedback to the controller regarding the health and status of the valve position. This system greatly enhances the precision and reliability of control valves in industrial settings.

What Are the Components of Control Valves?

Linear Motion Control Valve

Valve body: The valve body in linear control valves contains an opening, and the flow rate is controlled by moving a closure member in and out of this opening. The closure members in linear valves can be of different kinds, such as disks, slides, and more.
Bonnet: This component houses the packing and also acts as a guide to the stem. It provides the stuffing box through which the stem moves and seals the system to prevent any leakage.
Trim: This forms the internal parts of the valve and comes in direct contact with the fluid. It usually consists of the stem, closure member, and seat.

Rotary Motion Control Valve

Rotary motion control valves regulate the flow of fluid through rotating elements, controlling flow by turning these elements 90 degrees.

What Are Some Types of Control Valves?

When it comes to control valve types, they fall into two major categories: linear control valves and rotary control valves. Each of these types comes with various subsets, each with its unique functionalities and applications.

Linear Control Valve

  1. Globe Valves: These are named for the globular cavity around their valve seat. Globe valves are an excellent choice for scenarios requiring flow resistance and substantial pressure drops.
  2. Diaphragm Valves: These valves use a deforming flexible surface or diaphragm for closure. They find major use in shut-off services of slurries or corrosive fluids.
  3. Gate Valves: The flat-faced vertical disc or gate of this valve slides down to block the flow, making it ideal for full open or close operations.
Control Valve Types
  1. Pinch Valves:These operate similar to diaphragm valves but offer a very low pressure drop due to no internal obstructions.

Rotary Control Valve

  1. Ball Valves: These have a ball-shaped closure with a port, allowing straight-through flow when open and shutting off flow when turned 90 degrees.
Control Valve Types
  1. Butterfly Valves: These valves use a circular disc or vane for closure, offering low pressure drop and fast operation.
  2. Plug Valves: They have a cylindrical or tapered plug as the closure member, allowing straight-through flow when opened.
Control Valve TypeAdvantagesDisadvantages
Globe ValveExcellent shut off capability. Can be used for throttlingHigh pressure drop, More expensive
Ball ValveLower cost, Can handle high flow rates, Quick to open and closePoor throttling capabilities, Not suitable for high temperatures
Gate ValveLow pressure drop, Good for on/off serviceNot suitable for throttling, Prone to vibration when partially open
Butterfly ValveLow cost, Good for large pipe diametersNot as effective for tight shut off, Not suitable for high pressure
Diaphragm ValveGood for corrosive and slurry flow, Lower costLimited to lower pressure and temperature applications
Pinch ValveGood for handling slurries, easy maintenanceLimited to low-pressure applications
Plug ValveGood for high temperature and pressure applications, Offers tight shutoffMore expensive, high torque required to operate

What Factors Should Consider When Installing Different Types of Control Valves?

When planning to install different types of control valves, several crucial considerations come into play:
Fluid Type: Understand the characteristics of the fluid—their nature (corrosive, viscous, etc.), temperature, and pressure—which will directly impact the valve type selection.
Valve Material: Ensure the materials used in the valve construction are compatible with the fluid used. This is crucial to prevent corrosion, wear, and premature failure.
Flow Control Requirements: Consider the desired flow rate and changes in flow rate required for your process control. Certain control valve types might be better suited for high flow rate applications, while others excel in precise flow control.
Design and Size: The design and size of the valve should match the specifications of your pipeline, ensuring proper fitting and efficient operation.

System Layout: Consider the physical space for the valve installation. Certain types of control valves might require additional room for actuators and maintenance access.
Safety and Regulations: Compliance with safety rules and industry regulations in your specific sector is vital. For instance, control valves used in certain industries or applications might need to adhere to strict safety certifications.

What Are the Applications of Control Valves?

Control valves are versatile devices used across a broad spectrum of industries:
Chemical and Petrochemical Industry: Control valves are used to manage and monitor the flow, temperature, and pressure of various chemicals in the process lines.
Oil and Gas: In refineries and pipelines, control valves manage the flow and pressure of oil and gas during extraction, processing, and transportation stages.

Food and Beverage Industry: To maintain precise control over process variables during the manufacturing process, control valves are used.
Water and Waste Treatment: Flow control valves manage the flow rate of water and waste materials, ensuring efficient operation of the treatment processes.
HVAC Systems: Control valves manage the temperature and pressure within air conditioning systems, enhancing their efficiency and effectiveness.
Power Generation: Control valves play a vital role in managing the flow of steam in power plants, directly impacting operational efficiency.

What to Consider Before Buying Control Valves?

  1. Requirements: Identify your operational needs—flow rate, pressure, temperature, and valve closure or opening speed.
  2. Material Compatibility: Ensure the material of the valve is corrosion-resistant and suits the type of fluid in your system.
  3. Valve Size: A valve’s size should correspond precisely to the pipeline diameter where it will be installed.
  4. Performance Parameters: Consider a valve’s hydraulic performance, including pressure drop, flow coefficient (Cv), and rangeability, ensuring the valve efficiency meets your process requirements.
  5. Safety: Consider valves with safety features such as automatic failsafe modes (Fail-open or fail-close) for higher risk applications.
  6. Maintenance: Opt for valves that are easy to maintain, offering long-term reliability and reducing overall operation costs.
  7. Cost: While it’s essential to consider the initial cost of a valve, factor in lifetime costs, including operation, maintenance, and potential downtime.

Conclusion

Control valves play a crucial role in fluid handling and control systems. With a variety of types, each offering unique advantages for specific applications, it is important to consider the factors that will affect its performance and longevity. From the type of fluid and operating conditions to safety requirements and cost-effectiveness, every aspect matters when opting for the right control valve.

Get an Instant Quote With Dombor

At Dombor, we provide a broad range of control valve types for diverse applications. Leveraging our industry-leading expertise, we can help you identify the most suitable control valve for your needs. For an instant quote and assistance in your selection process, reach out to us today.

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