A Comprehensive Guide to the Most Common Types of Industrial Valves

Home A Comprehensive Guide to the Most Common Types of Industrial Valves
07/06/2023
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The world of industrial valves is vast and varied, with a multitude of different types of valves serving a wide range of applications. As the demand for these essential components continues to grow, it’s important to stay informed about the latest trends, certifications, and best practices. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll explore the most common types of industrial valves(gate valve, globe valve, ball valve, butterfly valve and check valve), discuss industry-standard certifications, and offer tips on selecting, installing, and maintaining industrial valves to ensure optimal performance.

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Industrial Valves

Introduction

Definition and purpose of industrial valves

Industrial valves are important tools used in various industrial applications to manage the fluid flow such as liquids, gases, and slurries. They have a specific purpose: to regulate, direct, or control the movement of these substances by either opening or closing passages, or by partially obstructing them. In simple terms, valves act as gatekeepers, allowing or restricting the flow of fluids within a system.

These mechanical devices play a crucial role in different industrial applications, ensuring the smooth operation and efficiency of various systems. You can find industrial valves in a wide range of sectors, including oil and gas, chemical industry, power plants, water supply, wastewater treatment, process industries and many others. They are designed to handle different types of fluids and provide precise control over their flow, contributing to the overall functionality and safety of industrial operations.

Growing demand and market trends of industrial valves

The global industrial valve market is estimated to be worth around US$ 71.8 Billion in 2022. With the rising adoption of industrial valves for regulating the flow of materials, the overall demand is anticipated to rise at a moderate CAR of 4.3% between 2022 and 2029, totaling a valuation of US$ 96.2 Billion by 2029.

AttributeDetails
Industrial Valves Market Estimated Size in 2022US$ 71.8 Billion
Market Projected Size in 2029US$ 96.2 Billion
Industrial Valves Market Historical CAR (2014 to 2021)3.50%
Market Value-Based CAGR (2022 to 2029)4.20%

This substantial growth can be attributed to several factors, including the ongoing industrialization across various sectors, the expansion of existing facilities, and notable advancements in valves design and materials. With industrial processes becoming progressively intricate and rigorous, the demand for top-notch valves that offer unparalleled quality and dependability has become paramount.

The surge in industrialization, especially in emerging economies, has resulted in a greater demand for valves to facilitate the smooth operation of diverse industries such as oil and gas, chemical manufacturing, power plants, wastewater treatment, and more. As these industries expand their capacities and infrastructures, the requirement for reliable valves to control the flow of fluids, gases, and slurries becomes increasingly vital.

Furthermore, continuous advancements in valves technology, including innovations in design, materials, and manufacturing processes, have contributed to the market growth. These innovations have resulted in valves that can withstand higher pressures, handle more challenging operating conditions, and provide enhanced efficiency and durability. With the evolving needs of modern industrial processes, the availability of cutting-edge valves solutions has become instrumental in meeting the industry’s demands.

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Industrial Valves

Different Types of Industrial Valves: A Comparison Guide

In this section, we’ll cover 5 most common types of industrial valves: gate valves, globe valves, ball valves, butterfly valves and check valves as well as their respective advantages, disadvantages, and applications.

Gate Valves

Gate valves are isolation valves and control valves designed to control the flow of liquid through pipes. As a linear motion valve, it’s commonly used in homes and commercial centers to start or stop the flow of water or other liquids. Gate valves are manufactured using different materials such as stainless steel, cast iron, alloy steel, and forged steel.

The functioning of gate valves involves lifting a circular or rectangular gate out of the fluid path. When the gate valves are open, there is no obstruction to the flow as the pipeline diameter and gate have the same opening. The valve size can be determined by its bore diameter.

Advantages

  • Gate valves have very low friction loss.
  • They can be used in both directions in a circuit.
  • They provide laminar flow, resulting in minimal pressure loss.
  • Gate valves help save energy and reduce overall cost of ownership.
  • When fully opened, they have a low-pressure drop and provide tight sealing.

Disadvantages

  • Gate valves cannot be opened or closed quickly.
  • They may cause vibrations.
  • In systems with irregular high-temperature changes, leakages in gate valves can occur due to the load on the valve end of the pipe.
  • The operation, maintenance, and repair of gate valves seating surfaces are complex.

Applications

  • Gate valves are suitable for use in high-temperature and high-pressure conditions.
  • They are commonly used for on-off applications.
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Dombor Gate Valves

Globe Valves

Globe valves are widely used in various applications and are considered one of the most popular types of industrial valves. Similar to gate valves, they use linear motion to regulate the flow of fluid. These valves play a crucial role in controlling flow within pipelines by adjusting the position of a movable disk or plug in relation to a stationary ring seat. One notable advantage of globe valves is their ability to minimize leakage compared to other types of industrial valves.

The structure of globe valves consists of a baffle that divides the interior of the pipe, typically running parallel to its length. Their name is derived from the spherical shape of their body, which is separated into two halves by an internal baffle. Inside the valve, there is a movable disk-like element and a stationary ring seat, creating a generally spherical body.

Advantages

  • Globe valves exhibit good throttling and full-closing characteristics.
  • They have a shorter opening and closing time.
  • The process of seating the body ring is easier.
  • Globe valves can also function as stop-check valves.
  • They provide positive shut-off, ensuring effective flow control.

Disadvantages

  • Globe valves tend to have higher pressure relief compared to other valve types.
  • Closing globe valves under high pressure requires a larger amount of force or the use of an actuator with significant torque.

Applications

  • Globe valves are primarily used for throttling purposes.
  • They are commonly employed as general-purpose flow control valves in high-temperature applications.
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Dombor Globe Valves

Ball Valves

As a type of control valves, ball valves are valves that use a ball to control the flow of substances from one opening to the next. Ball valves work by allowing the hole to be open, blocked, or open partially to regulate the flow of gas/liquid. Futhermore, ball valves are the ideal choice for using with gases as they are able to offer better sealing. They are very versatile as they support pressures up to 700 bars and temperatures up to 200°C and sizes typically range from 0.5 cm to 30 cm. They are easy to operate and repair as they contain a simple structure.

They are designed with special measures that permit only a 90-degree rotation which is required for the opening and closing of ball valves. These valves are a notable industrial choice because of their reliable and air-tight sealing when in the closed position.

Advantages

• They contain a compact and low-maintenance design that requires no lubrication

• They are cost-effective among all of the other valves

• The biggest advantage of ball valves is that they have poor throttling characteristics that can cause the seat of a ball valve to easily erode.

• They provide leak-proof service.

• They open and close quickly.

• Ball valves have multi-way design flexibility.

Disadvantages

• Ball valves are not suitable for permanent throttling.

• In residual fluids, the particles in the fluid collide with the surfaces and stick to them. This may cause leakage, abrasion, and other problems.

Applications

• Ball Valves are used for flow and pressure control and shut off for corrosive fluids, slurries, normal liquid and gases.

• They are used in the oil and natural gas industry, but also find a place in many manufacturing sectors, chemical storage, and even residential uses.

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Dombor Ball Valves

Butterfly Valves

Butterfly valves are specifically designed to regulate the flow, although their control capabilities are somewhat limited. Operating a butterfly valve is as simple as rotating a handle 90 degrees. The valve features a metal disc positioned perpendicular to the flow when closed. By making intermediate rotations, the regulation of liquid flow can be achieved. Butterfly valves can be operated electronically, manually, or pneumatically, depending on the specific requirements.

These control valves find a wide range of applications in various industries such as water supply, wastewater treatment, fire protection, gas supply, chemicals, oil, fuel handling systems, power generation, and more. They can be operated using handles, gears, or actuators, offering flexibility based on the intended use.

Advantages

  • Butterfly valves exhibit high accuracy, making them particularly advantageous for industrial applications.
  • They are highly reliable and require minimal maintenance.
  • These industrial valves have the ability to throttle the flow.
  • They can be installed or removed without the need to dislocate the pipe system.

Disadvantages

  • Butterfly valves do not provide tight shut-offs.
  • Even when fully opened, a portion of the disc remains exposed to the flow, which can result in a pressure switch across the valves regardless of the setting.

Applications

  • Butterfly valves are commonly used in pharmaceutical, chemical, and food processing services.
  • They are suitable for handling corrosive liquids at low temperatures and pressures.
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Dombor Butterfly Valves

Check Valves

Check Valves, also known as Non Return Valves (NRV), are essential components that allow the flow of liquid or gas in one direction while preventing backflow in the reverse direction. Their main purpose is to safeguard equipment and maintain the proper flow direction in a system.

These industry valves are commonly used to protect pumps in liquid applications and compressors in gas systems. By preventing backflow, they ensure the smooth operation of these devices and prevent potential damage or disruptions in the process. The design of check valves effectively reduces the occurrence of backflow in a pipeline.

One of the major advantage of check valves is their simplicity, allowing them to operate automatically without the need for human intervention or automation. They rely on the velocity of the fluid flow to open and close. As the flow rate increases, the valve opens further until it reaches its maximum, fully open position.

Advantages

  • Check valves effectively prevent backflow, ensuring the intended flow direction.
  • They can sustain pressure and maintain system integrity.
  • Check valves serve as a reliable backup system, providing an additional layer of protection.

Disadvantages

  • Check valves are not suitable for use in pulsating systems with fluctuating flow.
  • There is a possibility of the closing element crashing, leading to potential damage and excessive wear.

Applications

  • Check valves find application across various markets and industries due to their simple design and versatile material options.
  • They are used to prevent backflow and maintain pressure in industries such as refining, petrochemicals, chemicals, oilfield production, water management, steam systems, and handling viscous fluids.
  • Check valves are commonly employed in waste-water management systems and manufacturing processes.
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Dombor Check Valves

Comparison chart of different types of industrial valves

Valve TypeApplicationsAdvantagesDisadvantages
Gate Valve1. High temperature and pressure conditions
2. On-off applications
1. Low friction loss
2. Can be used in both directions
Provide laminar flow
3. Help save energy
4. Low-pressure drop and tight sealing
1. Cannot be opened/closed quickly
2. Cause vibrations
3. May leak in systems with irregular temperature changes
Globe Valve1. Throttling purposes
2. High-temperature applications
1. Good throttling and full-closing characteristics
2. Short opening-closing time
3. Easier body ring seating surface process
4. Can be used as stop-check valvesPositive shut-off
1. Higher pressure loss
2. Require larger force or torque to close under high pressure
Ball Valve1. Flow and pressure control
2. Corrosive fluids, gases, and liquids
1. Compact and low-maintenance design
2. Cost-effectiveLeak-proof service
3. Quick opening and closingMulti-way design flexibility
1. Not suitable for permanent throttling
2. Particles in fluid can cause leakage and abrasion
Butterfly ValveWater supply, wastewater treatment, gas supply, chemical and oil industries1. Accurate and reliableLow maintenance
2. Throttling capabilityEasy installation and removal without dislocation
1. No tight shut-offs
2. Pressure drop across the valve, regardless of the setting
Check ValvePump and compressor protection1. Prevent backflow
2. Sustain pressureServe as backup system
1. Not suitable for pulsating systems
2. Closing element may cause damage and wear

Factors to Consider When Choosing Industrial Valves

When you’re choosing an industrial valve, it’s important to keep in mind several factors that will help you choose the right valve. Here are some key points to consider:

Raw Materials

When choosing industrial valves, the raw materials used for different valves components are vital factors to consider.

  • The body of the valves, which provides strength and houses internal parts, can be made of stainless steel, carbon steel, cast iron, brass, or bronze.
  • The trim of the valves, including the disc, stem, and valve seat, may use materials like stainless steel, carbon steel, bronze, or special alloys for handling corrosive fluids. Metal seats are the most common type of valve seats.
  • Sealing raw materials, such as rubber, PTFE, or metal-to-metal seals, ensure tight closure and prevent leakage.
  • Actuator components, like aluminum, stainless steel, or cast iron, are used for automated or manual operation.
  • The bonnet, which covers and protects the valve stem and internals, is typically made of the same raw materials as the valve body.

Careful consideration of raw materials based on factors like fluid properties, temperature, pressure, and environmental conditions is crucial to ensure optimal performance, durability, and safety of industrial valves. Manufacturers and industry standards provide guidance for material selection, ensuring that the chosen materials meet the specific requirements of each application.

Type of Fluid

The first thing to consider is the type of fluid that will be flowing through the valve. Different fluids have different properties, such as viscosity, temperature, and corrosiveness. These properties will impact the choice of valve type and the materials it should be made of. You want to ensure that the valve can handle the specific characteristics of the fluid without any issues.

Flow Control Requirements

Next, evaluate the flow control needs of your system. Do you require precise throttling capabilities to regulate the flow rate? Are tight shut-offs necessary to prevent any leakage? Consider any specific characteristics that are important for your system’s flow control and choose a valve that can meet those requirements effectively.

Operating Conditions

The operating conditions of your system play a crucial role in valve selection. Take into account factors like the operating pressure, temperature, and the environmental conditions in which the valve will be installed. This information will help you choose a valve with the appropriate materials, construction, and durability to withstand the conditions it will be exposed to.

Certifications and Standards

It’s essential to ensure that the valve you choose meets the necessary industry standards and certifications for your specific application. These certifications guarantee that the valve has undergone rigorous testing and meets the required safety and performance standards. Checking for certifications will provide you with confidence in the reliability and suitability of the valve for your intended use.

Cost and Maintenance

Lastly, consider the overall cost of ownership when selecting a valve. This includes not only the initial purchase price but also installation, maintenance, and potential replacement costs over the valve’s lifespan. Opting for a valve that requires minimal maintenance and has a good track record for durability can save you money in the long run.

By carefully considering these factors, you can make an informed decision when choosing an industrial valve that will meet your system’s needs, ensuring efficient and reliable operation.

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Industrial Valves

Industrial Valve Certification and Standards: Ensuring Safety and Compliance

When it comes to industrial valves, ensuring safety and compliance is of utmost importance. That’s why there are several organizations that have set up guidelines and requirements to certify and standardize indutrial valves and help you choose the right valve.

Leading Organizations in the Field of Industrial Valves

Let’s take a closer look at some of the prominent organizations in this field:

The American Petroleum Institute (API)

The API is a well-known organization that sets standards for the oil and gas industry. They provide guidelines and certifications for industrial valves used in oil refineries, pipelines, and other related applications. Valves that meet API standards are considered reliable and safe for use in these demanding environments.

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)

The ASME is another respected organization that establishes codes and standards for various mechanical engineering applications. They have developed standards specifically for industrial valves, covering aspects such as design, materials, manufacturing, and testing. Valves that carry the ASME certification are recognized for their quality and adherence to industry best practices.

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

The ISO is a global organization that develops and publishes international standards across different industries. In the case of industrial valves, the ISO provides guidelines for their design, performance, and testing methods. Valves that comply with ISO standards are considered reliable and compatible with international requirements.

The European Committee for Standardization (CEN)

The CEN is an organization that focuses on developing standards for products and services within the European Union. They have established specific standards for industrial valves used in European industries. Valves bearing the CEN certification meet the safety and performance criteria set forth by the EU.

These organizations play a vital role in ensuring that industrial valves meet specific requirements and undergo rigorous testing to guarantee their performance and safety. By adhering to these certifications and standards, manufacturers demonstrate their commitment to quality and compliance, giving users confidence in the industrial valves they choose for their applications. It’s important for industries and professionals to be aware of these certifications and to select valves that meet the appropriate standards for their specific needs.

Common Certificates of Industrial Valves Overview

Here are some common industrial valve-related certificates:

CertificateRequired AreaIssuing Agency/Organization
API 6DOil and gas industryAmerican Petroleum Institute
API 600Bolted bonnet steel gate valvesAmerican Petroleum Institute
API 607Fire-safe ball valvesAmerican Petroleum Institute
ASME B16.34Valves for pressure-temperature ratingsAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASME Section VIIIPressure vesselsAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers
ISO 9001Quality management systemsInternational Organization for Standardization
ISO 14001Environmental management systemsInternational Organization for Standardization
ISO 15848Industrial valves for fugitive emissionsInternational Organization for Standardization
EN 1984Industrial valves for general purposesEuropean Committee for Standardization
PED 2014/68/EUPressure equipment directiveEuropean Committee for Standardization
CSA Z245.15Steel valves for petroleum and natural gas industriesCanadian Standards Association
CSA B51Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping codeCanadian Standards Association
AS 1210Pressure vesselsStandards Australia
AS 2683Industrial valves – Copper alloy gate, globe, and non-return valvesStandards Australia

Please note that this is not an exhaustive list, and there may be additional certifications and organizations specific to other regions.

Industrial Valve Installation: Best Practices for Optimal Performance

Achieving optimal performance from industrial valves relies on their correct installation. To ensure smooth operation and long-lasting functionality, it’s important to follow these best practices:

Follow Manufacturer Guidelines

Always refer to the manufacturer’s guidelines and instructions for installing the specific type and model of valve. These guidelines provide valuable information on proper installation techniques and considerations.

Properly Align Piping

Accurate alignment of the piping system is essential for the successful installation of valves. Misalignment can cause stress, leaks, or reduced performance. Take the time to align the pipes correctly, ensuring a proper fit and avoiding unnecessary strain on the valve.

Properly Select Gaskets and Bolts

The selection of suitable gaskets and bolts is vital to achieve a secure and leak-free valve installation. Choose gaskets and bolts that are compatible with the valve and the fluid being handled. Ensure proper torque is applied during the installation process to maintain a reliable seal.

Test the Valve

Before putting the system into operation, conduct thorough testing of the valve to ensure its functionality and integrity. This may involve pressure tests, leak checks, or other relevant assessments to verify proper installation and functionality.

Proper Valve Orientation

Pay attention to the correct orientation of the valve during installation. Improper orientation can hinder the valve’s performance and compromise its functionality. Follow the manufacturer’s guidelines to ensure the valve is positioned correctly for optimal flow control.

By adhering to these best practices during the installation process, you can maximize the performance and longevity of industrial valves, contributing to the overall efficiency and reliability of your system.

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Industrial Valve Installation

Valve Maintenance: Tips for Prolonging the Life of Your Valves

To ensure your industrial valves continue to perform effectively and last longer, it’s crucial to prioritize regular maintenance. Here are some practical tips for valve maintenance:

Conduct Routine Inspections

Regularly inspect your valves for any signs of wear, corrosion, or damage. This helps identify potential issues early on and allows for timely repairs or replacements.

Replace Worn or Damaged Components

If you notice any worn-out or damaged valve components during inspections, it’s important to replace them promptly. Neglecting to replace faulty parts can lead to further damage or system failure.

Lubricate and Clean

Keep your valves properly lubricated and clean. Follow the manufacturer’s guidelines to determine the appropriate lubrication intervals and cleaning procedures. This helps prevent friction, reduces wear and tear, and ensures smooth valve operation.

Monitor Valve Performance

Regularly monitor the performance of your valves to ensure they are functioning optimally. Keep an eye on factors such as flow control, pressure, and temperature. If you notice any deviations or inconsistencies, address them promptly to maintain efficient system operation.

Follow a Preventative Maintenance Schedule

Establish a preventative maintenance schedule based on the manufacturer’s recommendations and the specific requirements of your system. This includes regular servicing, testing, and calibration to prevent unexpected breakdowns and extend the lifespan of your valves.

By following these maintenance tips, you can enhance the reliability, efficiency, and longevity of your industrial valves, ultimately minimizing downtime and maximizing productivity.

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Industrial Valves Maintenance

Conclusion

In this comprehensive guide, we’ve covered the 5 types of industrial valves (gate valve, globe valve, ball valve, butterfly valve and check valve) and their advantages, disadvantages, and applications. We’ve also emphasized the importance of certifications and standards to ensure safety and compliance.

When choosing an industrial valve, remember to consider factors like the type of fluid, flow control requirements, operating conditions, certifications, and cost. Following proper installation practices, such as manufacturer guidelines and proper piping alignment, is crucial for optimal performance.

To prolong the life of your industrial valves, regular maintenance is essential. This includes inspections, lubrication, cleaning, and replacing worn or damaged components. It’s also important to monitor valve performance and follow a preventative maintenance schedule.

By staying informed and following these guidelines, you can ensure the safety, reliability, and efficiency of your industrial valve systems.

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